Philippines has rich floral biodiversity accompanied by an abundant source of medicinal plants easily accessible in the locality. In terms of ethnomedical properties, Chrysophyllum cainito has been used to treat various diseases. In this study, C. cainito leaves were collected and evaluated for cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The C. cainito leaves were extracted with water, 50:50 ethanol-water, and absolute ethanol to produce the decoction, hydro-ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts respectively. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were prepared and tested. The mortality rates of the brine shrimp were observed after 6 and 24 hours. The results showed that all the prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibiting greater activities compared to the decoction. The ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24-h exposures with LC values of 25.85μg/ml and 84.14μg/ml respectively. The results indicate that the use of absolute ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water may have successfully extracted the bioactive compounds in the C. cainito that have acted on the brine shrimp. The presence of active components in the extracts indicated the potential of C. cainito as alternative medicine and hence requires further tests to qualitatively identify the bioactive compounds.
Cigarette smoking is the practice of burning cigarettes and inhaling the smoke that comes from them. Cigarette smoke elicits carcinogenic effects on the tissues of the body that are exposed to it. The aim of carrying out this study was to evaluate the buccal mucosa smears of active and passive cigarette smokers in Owo Town, Ondo State, Nigeria. About 150 subjects were recruited for this study, of which100 were active cigarette smokers while 50 were passive cigarette smokers. Active cigarette smokers that have not been smoking daily for at least 5 years were not included for this study and passive cigarette smokers who have smoked cigarette or any other type of tobacco products before were not included for this study. The subjects for both active cigarette smokers and passive cigarette smokers were given a questionnaire to fill; clean water was given to them to rinse their mouth before samples were collected from their buccal cavities with the use of a sterile spatula. Samples collected were immediately smeared on a clean frosted end slide, fixed in 95% alcohol, and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stain. This study revealed that the prevalence of male involved in cigarette smoking is higher than that of females and there is a higher prevalence of youths actively involved in cigarette smoking in Owo town, Ondo state. The stained buccal smears of passive cigarette smokers revealed normal squamous epithelial cells with some smears showing scanty inflammatory cells. The stained buccal smears of active cigarette smokers revealed heavy infiltrates of inflammatory cells, increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromatic cells, and squamous epithelial cells looking glycogenated with tiny spherical bodies on the cytoplasm suggestive of fungi infection. Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions majorly among active cigarette smokers.
Determination of sex and living stature are key components of the biological profile for the personal identification of individuals. There is limited literature describing such investigation among adult Nigerians. The present study was carried out to develop regression models to estimate living stature and reliably predict sex from percutaneous anthropometric dimensions of the hand in a contemporary adult Nigerian population in Lagos. To derive the regression models, a total of nine (9) anthropometric measurements were recorded for two hundred and twenty-two (222) adult Nigerians (Male 115, Females 107) ranging from 18-65 years of age among them were staff and students of College of Medicine of the University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba. The direct measurements taken were Hand length, Palm length, Hand breathes, Wrist width, and Digit lengths which included thumb, index, middle, ring, and little fingers. The result of this present study recorded a significant relationship between gender and stature determination using hand dimensions (p<0.001) as males recorded a mean of 176.49±7.4cm and female recorded a mean of 166.36±7.1cm. Together with stature, every other parameter showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between males and females. Results for correlation between hand parameters and stature were statistically significant (p<0.01) as different variables showed different degrees and strength of association ranging between 0.411 to 0.625 for left hand and 0.467 to 0.587 for right-hand measurements. The weakest correlations were observed in thumb length, little finger, and wrist width respectively on the right hand while thumb length and wrist width showed the weakest correlation on the left hand. Regression formulae for reconstructing stature were developed for each of these parameters through simple and multiple linear regressions for stature and logistic regression models were generated for sex estimation with a sectioning point at 0.5. Hand dimensions can be used in Sex and stature determination in medico-legal cases if the need arises. These derived equations, thus, provided a new tool for standard in forensic science in medico-legal practice.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element needed for normal development and physiological processes in the body. However, chronic exposures or consumption of Mn can cause neurotoxicity in humans to affect balance and motor coordination. Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in some fruits and its association with the management of motor neurodegenerative disorders is yet to be fully understood. Hence, this is present study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of Quercetin on manganese-induced cerebellar damage of adult mice. Forty (40) healthy BALB/c male mice weighing between 20-25grandomly selected into five groups were used for the study. Behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were carried to validate our hypothesis that Quercetin is neuroprotective. Manganese exposed mice exhibited increased latency of turn (LOT) when compared to the control group in parallel bar test. There was a significant decrease in the LOT in all groups that received Quercetin when compared with the manganese exposed group. Also, when using the grip strength test, manganese exposed mice exhibited decreased grip strength when compared to the control group and a significant increase in Quercetin grip strength when compared with manganese exposed group. Histological results also revealed that there were little or no disrupted neurons in the granular, molecular and purkinje layer of the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical results also showed that the normal control and Quercetin-treated mice showed no expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to the manganese-exposed mice with shrunken morphology. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly different in the experimental animals when compared to the control and Quercetin treated mice. This study, therefore, revealed that Quercetin may have an antioxidant effect on the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cerebellum thereby ameliorating the exhibited abnormal motor coordination caused by prolonged exposure to manganese.
This study was carried out to assess the main secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extract of Calycotome Spinosa plant using either conventional (maceration, reflux, and Soxhlet) and unconventional (Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE)) methods. The highest extract yields were recorded for MAE methods in both water (18.15%) and ethanol extraction (21.37%) respectively. MAE method showed the highest rate of total phenolic compounds TPC (168.24±0.79 and 182.60±1.29 mg CE/g DR) and total flavonoids (16.38±1.17 and 28.94 ±0.67 mg CE/g DR) contents in both water and hydro-ethanol extracts respectively. While, the highest tannin content was recorded for maceration and MAE methods (18.90±2.82 and 23.01±2.20 mg CE/g DR) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts respectively. MAE method exhibited a significant ability to scavenge DPPH radical (IC50= 0.51 ± 0.39, and 0.34 ±0.48 mg/mL) in both water and hydro-ethanol respectively. We conclude that MAE was more effective as an extraction method for C. Spinosa plant which allows a good extraction yield with a high rate of secondary metabolite and a high antioxidant activity.
Intake of chemicals like monosodium glutamate (MSG), mostly used as a food seasoning, enhance the prevalence of leiomyoma. Leiomyoma has no known cure but Spondias mombin leaves have been in use, locally, in its management among Igbos of South-Eastern Nigeria. This work investigated the effect of S. mombin extract on hepatocytes after ingesting MSG. Twenty-one rats used in this study were divided into three groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Two groups had fibroid after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid and remained untreated. Group III, with fibroid, were continuously fed with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days in addition to daily oral treatment with 250mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin. Histological examinations of rat’s hepatocytes were performed on 2ndand 4thweeks, respectively, using two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of S. mombin did not preserve the rat’s hepatocytes. Ingestion of S. mombin aqueous extract is deleterious to hepatocytes and could lead to other liver diseases. Results further indicated that continuous ingestion of MSG is destructive to hepatocytes. Care should be applied while ingesting an aqueous extract of S. mombin either as prophylaxis or as a chemotherapeutic agent. The result of this study had shown that oral intake of MSG has the potential of inducing uterine leiomyoma in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Patients with psychosis are often mistaken for cerebral malaria, and hence continue to be poorly treated. This work is aimed to highlight the features of cerebral malaria and psychosis so that distinctions and proper treatment are obtained. It was a case of 28 years old woman with 4th episode of mental illness characterized by strange voices gossiping about her, poor hygiene, belief of being monitored through her phone, accusing the mother-in-law of witchcraft, and refusing food cooked in the house because it was poisoned. Four days before presentation, she smashed their television because they were discussing her childlessness. She was not feverish, not a known epileptic, diabetic or hypertensive, and no psychoactive substance use. Previous episodes of this illness were treated in a peripheral hospital as typhoid fever and malaria without significant change in her condition until she presented to us where she received antipsychotics, and she became well and was discharged.
Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other because of the role of the thyroid gland in the regulation of body metabolism. This work is therefore designed to study the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata (baobab) on the thyroid gland of alloxan-induced diabetes. Twenty-eight Wistar rats, weighing 120g to 195g were divided into seven groups (n=4). Sham control, Diabetes control, Diabetes + Low dose, Diabetes + High dose, Diabetes + metformin, Low dose, and High dose. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150mg/kg alloxan monohydrate and animals were treated with Adansonia digitata for 14 days. This study indicated that the leaf extract of Adansonia digitata increase serum triiodothyronine levels and reversed the histological damage to the thyroid gland. Therefore, Adansonia digitata could be used to manage metabolic dysfunctions in the diabetic thyroid gland
The challenges experienced domestically require immediate service responsiveness of various sub-professionals. These challenges and investigative landscapes draws awareness to epileptic services of this home demand services and tends to an increase of wears and tears of domestic appliances and equipment, hence decreasing their downtime and production. This outcome however is as a result of the hitches inaccessibility of these sub-professionals (artisans) to assist in their maintainability. This paper titled “Improving Home Request Services with Web-Based Android Application” is aimed at designing and implementing an improved home demand services using automated web-based android applications. This study was realized using object-oriented methodology in line with the necessary universal modeling diagrams for the system design and was implemented using Java programming language in android studio as the software development kit. The improved developed system was hosted locally and tested using furry investigative toolbox (instrument tool for testing mobile applications), and the result was recorded and compared with other services rendering systems. The result showed that the developed home request services with web-based android application alleviated the problem of moving about searching for sub-professional (artisans) to render domestic services.
This review sought to highlight the 2017/2018 Measles Vaccination Campaign implementation process in Delta State, Nigeria. Data on different aspects of the campaign were reviewed and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. A total of 1, 157 827 eligible children were vaccinated, 1368-member teams were trained to offer vaccination services, 26 (25 minor and I major) adverse events following immunization were recorded and subsequently managed by trained clinicians at designated secondary health facilities in the 9 affected local government areas, 17,948 safety boxes were generated, stored and incinerated at the Ibuzor industrial waste plant near the state capital. While 2.59% and 18.02 % of all vaccinated children between the ages of 9 and11 months had received a first measles dose and other doses, 2.08% and 77.32% of all children between the ages of 12-59 months had received the first dose and other doses respectively. The state vaccine wastage rate was 12.2%. At the end of the campaign, the state recorded administrative measles coverage of 106.5% while the National Bureau of Statistics in conjunction with partners reported a post campaign coverage of 93.8%. The measles vaccination campaign for controlling measles in Delta State which targeted children between the ages of 9 and 59 months was able to achieve the desired coverage required for herd immunity. Political support from the state government and from relevant line ministries, robust advocacy, communication with electronic and print media, training of teams and sustained social mobilization were veritable tools to the overall success of the measles campaign in Delta State
Ledebouria ovatifolia is a plant known in isiXhosa as “Icubudwana” and is generally used by the Xhosa tribe in South Africa for medicinal purposes, including stomach-ache, diarrhoea, influenza, gargle and skin irritation. This study aimed at evaluating the healing effect of L. ovatifolia on experimentally induced reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced on rats by ligating the pylorus and the fore stomach. Animals were then autopsied 4 hours after the double ligation to examine the protective and deleterious effect of drugs. Prior to induction of esophagitis, different groups of rats were pre-treated orally with 100mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 200 mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 20mg/kg omeprazole and distilled water. Induction of reflux esophagitis caused marked increase of gross esophageal lesions, which corresponded with histopathological changes. Microscopic evaluation of ulcerated esophagus of L. ovatifolia pre-treated groups showed a reduced disruption of the surface epithelium at the lower dose. Higher dose of the plant extract showed an eroded esophageal mucosa with no recovery. The results suggest that L. ovatifolia could reduce the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage. This may confirm its therapeutic use in esophageal reflux disease.
The wreak havoc pose by herbicide on the environment and the ecosystem has become an issue of interest to the environmentalist over the past years. Up till date, adsorption methods has been demonstrated to be an excellent technique to remediate herbicides by comparison with other traditional methods due to its high efficiency, low operating and maintenance cost, simple design, insensitivity for toxic substances, suitable for most contaminated waters and the complete removal of contaminants even from the dilute solutions. This paper is aim at investigating and establishing the adsorption efficiency of activated Bambara groundnut shells in the removal of pendimethalin (PE) herbicide from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions. The pore volume analysis of the adsorbent demonstrated good quality of the activated carbon. It also had low moisture content and bulky density respectively. The activated Bambara groundnut shell (ACBGNS) was also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis methods. The Effect of initial concentration (10 to 60mg/l), solution pH (3 to 8), adsorbent dosage (0.2 to 1.2g) and contact time (20 to 120) were optimized and reported. Adsorption capacity qe (mg/g) of PE onto ACBGNS was found to be 14.93mg/g. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of PE on the ACBGNS was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, the pseudo second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, respectively. Results showed that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to relatively correlate the experimental data well when compared to other models tested.
The purpose of this study is to address drought risk to cowpea farmers by identifying possible mixed lots of seed that spread risk. The method employed was a Poisson regression model using multi-year data for flowering time for 160 cowpea accessions. Two possible pairs of varieties for mixed seed release were identified, 1393-1-2-3(-) paired with Cameroon 12-58 and Sasaque paired with Tvu-9557. This study provides a new tool that can be used to predict the crop cycle for the lines and environments in the data set, which were in Pobe and Kamboinse, Burkina Faso. Further studies should consider consumer preferences, yield, disease resistance, and seed type.
Fish products require proper processing techniques to preserve their sensory qualities for a substantial period. This study presents the quality composition of a local fish species (Aba knife fish) predominant in Aba, South-eastern Nigeria. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of smoking process on the proximate and sensory qualities of Aba knife fish (Gymnaruchus niloticus). The studied fresh fish fillets were rinsed in clean water, brined and spread in trays before taken for smoke drying. A modified smoking kiln was used for the smoke-drying process. Analyses of proximate compositions (moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and ash content) were conducted on both the fresh and smoked fish samples. The study revealed that smoke drying decreases the moisture content to a mean safe level of 36.64 ± 0.01% dry basis (d.b), and increase the crude protein content (17.35 ± 0.02), ash content (3.61± 0.01), fat content (4.04 ± 0.01), carbohydrate content (38.36 ± 0.01) of the studied fish samples. There was no crude fibre content (0.00) in the fresh fish samples. Hence, the smoking process had no noticeable effect on the fibre content. The smoked fish samples were rated high in terms of aroma, taste, texture, colour, and general acceptability by the panel of quality assessors. Significance of the results obtained as well as recommendations for future studies were offered.
The uniqueness of fingerprints makes it a valued biometric trait and since the prints are regularly seen physical evidence in many crime scenes, forensic investigators employ them for sexual and ethnic differentiations when solving criminal cases. This study was an attempt to discriminate sex and ethnicity using thumbprint pattern and ridge density count between Igbo and Efik tribe of Nigeria. The sample size for this study includes 173 adults (Efik = 37 males, 44 females) and (Igbos = 61 males, 31 females), randomly selected between the ages of 18-40 years. The subjects were asked to wash and dry their hands to remove dirt and grease. The fingers (thumbs) of both hands were smeared with indelible ink and pressed in a white plane paper. Using meter rule, 25mm2 each was measured from radial border, ulnar border, and inferior quadrants respectively for fingerprint ridge density count. This data was analyzed using SPSS Software version 21 Chicago Incorporated. The results of this study showed that both the males and females of Igbo origin have predominantly loop fingerprint pattern, at the male to female ratio of 43% and 55% respectively. In the contrary, the male and female of Efik ethnic group recorded more whorl print pattern at the ratio of 54% and 50% respectively. More so, this results recorded sexual dimorphism (P<0.05) in the various ridge density count across the two ethnic groups, even the ethnic comparison of both males to males and females to females, recorded statistical significant difference (P<0.05) between the Igbos and Efiks. Hence, the Igbos, irrespective of sex showed more loop fingerprint pattern, contrary to the whorl fingerprint pattern more frequent amongst the Efiks.Thus, the present results will be of immense relevance in forensic practice by unveiling the peculiarities of finger ridge density associated with gender and ethnic origin.
Cheiloscopy and Nasal index are important bio-anthropological parameters unique to each ethnic group. The study aimed at identifying the lip print pattern and nasal index peculiar to Egba people and their possible interrelationship. The study was conducted in Abeokuta, South-West, Nigeria, among 410 adult Egba individuals (205 males and 205 females). Nasal height and width were measured using Digital Sliding Vernier Caliper. The lip prints of the subjects were collected by gently placing a microscopic glass slide on the lip after a little application of lip gloss. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software and the statistical significance was put into consideration using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) when (P ≤ 0.05). The result showed that the predominant lip print pattern of the Egba ethnic group was Type V. The predominant Nasal Index among both sexes was 60.00 while their peculiar nasal shape was Leptorrhine, which can subsequently serve as an important anthropometric tool used in reconstructive surgeries of nose. The study revealed no significant variation among the lip print patterns of all types of nasal morphology. The existence of sexual dimorphism in the lip print pattern of the Egba ethnic group is a peculiar feature that can be relevant in determination of gender in identification of persons during crime investigations and in mass disaster which are relevant in medico-legal cases.
The demand for high-performance materials has increased particularly across all industries in recent times due to the various areas of applications. Industries now require materials with a high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent anti-corrosion properties, good mechanical properties and good thermal conductivity. Given this, this study investigated the effect of palm kernel shell ash particle addition on the mechanical and thermal properties of Al-Mg-Si material. The mechanical properties of aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si)/palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) particles composites developed by powder metallurgy method were investigated. Also, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) analysis were carried out to determine their thermal properties. The produced PKSA was characterized with XRF to determine its elemental composition and the result showed that the presence of phases such as SiO2, K2O and Fe2O3 in high proportions which are known to be hard with extreme thermal resistance indicates a better chance at reinforcement. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact strength and flexural deflection) and the thermal properties were used as criteria to access the PKSA reinforced composite. Results revealed that there is an improved mechanical property of the developed composites (with a 43.76% increase in the hardness value and 252.03% increase in the impact strength) which is not farfetched from the reinforcement effect on the reduction in the percentage of elongation.
Extended Broad-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) is an enzyme produced by some bacteria which is capable of decomposing the third generation cephalosporins. Urinary tract infection (UTI) due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria has become widespread and resistance patterns vary nationally and internationally from one institution to another. This study examined the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in individuals with UTI accessing health care services in two health facilities in Enugu metropolis. One hundred and forty-five (145) bacteria isolate from 133 individuals with positive bacteriuria were subjected to Single Disc and Double Disc Synergy Tests to screen for ESBL. Forty-nine (49) bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Escherichia coli (n=15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=3), Enterococcus faecalis (n=3) and Proteus mirabilis (n=7)) were positive for ESBL-producing bacteria accounting for 46.8% prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria mediated UTI. The prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria induced UTI is huge and portends a great danger to the management of bacterial infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance surveillance should be institutionalized in management of bacterial infections in order to limit the spread of resistant strains and reduce antibiotics treatment failure.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is infection of the bladder, ureters, kidneys and/or Urethra, symptoms of which vary depending on its severity and the characteristics of an infected individual. This study examined the prevalence of UTI among individual with presumptive UTI accessing health care services in two health facilities in Enugu metropolis. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from 384 participants and analyzed bacteriologically using standard methods. The prevalence of UTI among the study participants was 34.6%., 133 out of 384 having positive bacteria urine test. Staphylococcus aureus (n=19), Escherichia coli (n=52), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=45), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12), Enterococcus faecalis (n=9) and Proteus mirabilis (n=8) were isolated as a single or mixed culture. Escherichia coli was the most implicated in the study followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Prevalence of UTI in females was 63.9% and 36.1% in males. The married (56.8%) and the singles (34.1%) recorded higher prevalence of UTI compared with the widow/widower (6.0%) and the divorced (3.1%). UTI was comparatively high (33.1%) among the age group 25 – 34 years and low (27.1%) in those >64 years. Civil servants and participants with tertiary level of education had UTI prevalence of 41.4% and 38.3% respectively. There was a significant difference in UTI based on sex (p=0.001) and age (p=0.02), but no significant difference based on marital status, occupation and educational level (p˃0.05). The prevalence of UTI in the study was high with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria implicated. Sex and age seem to play a significant role in UTI unlike marital status, educational level and occupation. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the UTI bacteria uropathogens should be investigated.
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb); gene appellation (shortened RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that stands dysfunctional in numerous major malignancies. Cervical cancer is another utmost common cause of cancer-related death globally between women folk. This study was aimed at investigating the expression of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in grades of cervical lesion. Two hundred (200) cases of archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues of already diagnosed cervical lesions and cervical carcinoma tissue blocks were selected for this study. Sections of 3µ thickness were cut for immunohistochemical staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining was semi-quantitatively scored based on percentage of cells that stained positive and the intensity of the staining. Photomicrograph was basically used for analyzing the expression, and comparative analysis of the data generated from the expression was statistically done. Frequency of data was calculated using Chi-square (x2). The expression of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was found to be 95.3% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN I) cases, 100% in CIN II cases, 85.4% in CIN III cases, and 60.8% in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. The expression of pRb in CIN I, II, and III as well as SCC significantly reduced as the CIN cases matured to malignancy (p<0.05) with CIN III been observed with the least expression of pRb among CIN cases. The down-regulation of pRb observed in this study may indicate mutation of RB gene in cervical lesions and could be involved in cervical carcinogenesis
The study examines the microbiological properties of cheese from cow milk as influenced by heat treatment durations and biological coagulant types. The cow milk was pasteurized at 65°C and subjected to further heat treatment for 15, 20, and 25 minutes with the addition of coagulants (lime juice, tamarind pulp and moringa seed paste) to respective samples and allowed to cool for 30 minutes before pressing out the whey. The initial properties of raw cow milk were determined to serve as control and the nine produced cow-milk cheese samples were determined using a 3x3 factorial treatment design. The microbiological properties of the cheese were determined using standard methods. Results obtained were analyzed statistically to determine the influence of heat treatment duration and coagulant sample.The microbial analysis revealed that there was Coliform in samples from cow cheeses, C25 (moringa seed paste coagulated cheese at 15 minutes of heat treatment) has the highest Coliform of 1.6x103 cfu/g, B15 (tamarind pulp coagulated cheese at 15 minutes of heat treatment) and C20 have yeast and mould bacteria of <1.0 ×102cfu/g and mesophylic bacteria was highest at C15 of 1.1x104 cfu/g, which are also within the permissible limit of consumption.This study is initiated to determine the effect of heat treatment and local coagulants on the microbial properties of Nigerian soft cow-milk cheese. The microbiological analysis revealed that the cow-milk cheese samples were all fit for consumption at all the HTD.
Reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years and other disturbing trends alerted scientists to the possibility that exposure to chemicals in the environment may damage male reproductive health. The aim of this study was is to investigate the possible hazard effects of formaldehyde (FA) and the possible therapeutic potential of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine (Ribcys) on key reproductive indices and cyto-architecture of male mice testes. Twenty eight (28) adult male Swiss albino mice weighing between 70-80g were assigned into four groups; A, B, C and D with each group containing seven mice. Group A animals served as control, animals in group B were administered with 5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of FA, animals in group C received 5 mg/kg of FA and 30 mg/kg bwt of Ribcys concomitantly, while group D animals were treated with only 30mg/kg bwt of Ribcys. All compounds were administered for 14 days. This study showed that formaldehyde treatment altered key semen parameters (sperm count, motility, and morphology) and caused testicular damage mainly by increasing ROS generation and promoting oxidative stress in the testes. Results from this study demonstrate a significant depletion of the collagen content of the testes following formaldehyde treatment. Ribcys treatment maintained the levels of key antioxidant markers (Determination of Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and semen quality. Also, serum testosterone level in mice treated with Ribcys increased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to formaldehyde treated mice. In addition, the cytoarchitecture of the testes of Ribcys treated animals appeared better structured and similar to that of the control group with little or no degenerative changes when compared to the formaldehyde group. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine has potent antioxidant properties and could provide therapeutic defense.
Some factors have been found to influence lip print patterns in individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between lip print pattern and season of birth in a Nigerian population. A total 764 adults were purposively selected from a two closely related tribe in the north central geopolitical zone of Nigeria. There lip prints were obtained by applying lip gloss and print on a glass slide. Each lip was divided into 6 quadrants and studied under magnifying lens. Lip print patterns were grouped using Hassan Fahmy (1977) classification. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23). Lip print types were expressed as frequency and proportion for each lip quadrant. Correlations between male and female lip print pattern and their season of birth was done using Chi-square test. The confidence level was set as 95% while statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed a consistent prevalence of type III and IV in the entire upper and lower quadrant, while the least expressed were type I’ and II. Qualitative analysis of association between season of birth and lip print pattern showed no significant distributional difference between those born during wet and dry season in the entire upper and lower quadrant but established that types III and IV were more prevalence in the tribe of study. These finding has provided further fact to prove that cheiloscopy is a reliable tool for personal or tribe identification.
Globally, internet addiction (IA) is now known as a disorder that arises from an overuse of available technology with a wide range of behaviours and impulse-control leading to poor psychological, mental and general well-being. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of internet addiction among undergraduate medical students in Enugu State. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 400 undergraduate medical students in two medical colleges in Enugu State, Nigeria. A pre-tested, semi-structured, questionnaire that adapted questions from Young's internet addiction test (YAT) was self-administered to the sampled students. Chi-squared tests of significance and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results were reported as odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Findings reveal that the mean age of respondents was 21.9± 3.6 years and they were predominantly females (62.2%). Out of 400 respondents, 3 (0.8%) were found to have severe IA while 71 (17.7%) were found to be moderately addicted and 216(64%) had mild addiction. The remaining 110 (27.5%) students were found to have no addiction. Bivariate analysis revealed that mothers’ highest educational qualification and students’ educational sponsors were associated with IA. On multivariate analysis, sponsorship by siblings (AOR= 2.869, CI= 1.322-6.226) and relatives (AOR= 6.336, CI= 1.473-27.250) were predictors of IA. In conclusion, with increasing reliance on the use of internet especially among the young people, the risk of IA is inevitable. More comprehensive evaluations should be employed routinely among the students to prevent dependency on the internet given the current technological trends, proliferations of smart gadgets and globalization.
Essential oils are volatile compounds found in special brittle secretory structures in plants, such as glands, they have several modes of actions as antioxidant, such as prevention of chain initiation and free radical scavenging. Ocimum gratissimum is an herbaceous plant which belongs to the Labiatae familyused in the treatment of epilepsy, high fever, diarrhea, mental illness, management of the baby’s cord, to keep the wound surfaces sterile and in the treatment of fungal infections, cold and catarrh. In this study, the antioxidant activity of Ocimum gratissimum in both fresh and dry leave is accessed. Pulverized fresh leaves (500g) of Ocimum gratissimum harvested at 10:00am in a day were air dried for five consecutive days and separately hydro-distilled for 3 hours. The oil yields range from 0.42-0.91% (w/w). Analysis of the oils using GC and GC-MS revealed the predominance of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (16.1-44.5%) and hydrocarbon monoterpenes (39.3-43.7)). The oils were predominated by α-thujene (14.6-24.5%), β-pinene(2.3-3%), α-terpinolene (9.3%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.8-3.5%), β-selinene (19.0-32.9%), Selina-3,7(11)-diene (5.6-12%), Isocarophillene (1.2-1.7%), β-Caryophyllene (8.5%), Humulene (2.3%), γ-cadinene (1.4%), E,Z-alloocimene (2.6-13.2%) and p-cymene (6.3-9.5%). α-phellandrene was detected in significant quantity (0.8%). The predominance of α-thujene and β-selinene in the oils shows that the oils were of α-thujene and β-selinene chemotypes. The free radical scavenging activities of oils were tested against2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH). The oils were active against DPPH regardless of the level of dryness. The most and least active oils were the oils of leaves dried for four days (95.68±1.40) and two days (41.91±2.42) at 20µl/ml and IC50 of 4.29µl/ml and 20.05µl/ml respectively.
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are large double-stranded DNA virus that are proficient in promoting cell death upon infection and in establishing latency in sensory ganglia and replicating in epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infection. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a significant public health problem being one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide and the leading cause of genital ulcerative disease (GUD) that is common both in industrialized and developing countries. The objective of this study was to survey Immunoglobulin G and M of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 among HIV positives patients in Katsina State, by determining the sociodemorgraphic and risk factors associated with HSV-2 infection. A cross-sectional serological survey enrolling 125 HIV positive participants attending public health care settings in six local government of Katsina State was conducted. Serum samples were obtained from randomly selected subjects. Samples were tested using an IgG and IgM HSV-2 specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The overall prevalence of HSV-2 IgG is 74.4% and 40.0% for IgM ranging from 81.8% in Katsina, 81.3% in Daura, 69.2% in Malumfashi, 64.3% in Baure, 63.2% in Funtua to 82.4% in Dutsinma for IgG respectively while IgM recorded prevalence rate of 23.5% in Dutsinma, 36.4% in Katsina, 42.9% in Baure, 62.5% in Daura, 36.8% in Funtua and 42.3% in Malumfashi. HSV-2 prevalence increased with age and HIV positivity. These results demonstrate a high prevalence of Herpes type-2 positivity among the participants. We recommend improved health education regarding Herpes type 2 among the populace and increasing routine testing for Herpes type 2 antibodies to prevent HSV-2 related morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients.
Vaginal smear cytology (VSC) is the most common method used in studying estrous cycle. There are multiple conflicting references regarding the VSC procedure, many of which lack comprehensive illustrations with undesired outcomes. These disparities have been linked to variations in environmental factors and inconsistencies in VSC procedure. These factors influence estrous cycling even before the administration of test substance, thereby causing research results that are not accurate. This study is therefore aimed at evaluating the procedure, factors that are being considered and result outcome. The assessment was carried out using questionnaires administered to basic scientists in three south western Nigeria Institutions; University of Lagos, University of Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University. The results from this study established that the length of the suction pipette inserted and the quantity of smear volume collected during VSC procedure were always measured and maintained in only 27% of respondents, sometimes in 64% and never in 9%. More so, researchers do not follow specific pattern of grouping where age-based and weight-based grouping pattern are higher with 47.2% and 48.0% respectively than using estrous cycle phase with 4.8% and no basis with 0.3%. The evaluation on result outcome showed that effective cycling at 100% is the lowest while cycling rate at 50% is the highest. We therefore advise that the evaluations of these results and those of the available references be put into test to establish a standard model for usage in this region of the world.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology