Aluminium Chloride (AlCl3) is an anhydrous chemical compound usually produced from the reaction between aluminium and chlorine or hydrogen chloride with reported damaging consequences on various tissues and organs.We investigated the potential effects of dietary walnut on AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity on the activation of inflammatory cytokines and ntrosative stress in cerebellum of Wistar rats. AlCl3 treatment for 28 days induced significantly decreased catalase (CAT) activities, an overexpressed LDH level as well as a significant elevation in IL-3 levels, and nitric oxide levels markedly increased when compared with the control and walnut-treated animals (p<0.05) resulting in induced oxidative stress, altered glucose metabolism, and neuroinflammation; as well as increased chromatolysis and degenerative changes in the cerebellar cortex. Interestingly, walnut-enriched diet administered post and pre-treatment with AlCl3 significantly improved cerebellar CAT activities, downregulated LDH levels and the activity of IL-3, and significantly reduced nitric oxide levels with a p-value <0.05 when compared with the Aluminium treated group. In conclusion, walnut-enriched diet diminished Aluminium-induced cerebellar perturbation in rats by modulating cellular and oxidative damage and counterbalances inflammatory cytokines and nitrosative stress proteins evoked by AlCl3 neurotoxicity. These results suggest that walnut-enriched diet may play a critical role in mitigating the progression of toxic cascades witnessed in neurodegenerative disorders triggered by Aluminium neurotoxicity.
Reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years and other disturbing trends alerted scientists to the possibility that exposure to chemicals in the environment may damage male reproductive health. The aim of this study was is to investigate the possible hazard effects of formaldehyde (FA) and the possible therapeutic potential of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine (Ribcys) on key reproductive indices and cyto-architecture of male mice testes. Twenty eight (28) adult male Swiss albino mice weighing between 70-80g were assigned into four groups; A, B, C and D with each group containing seven mice. Group A animals served as control, animals in group B were administered with 5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of FA, animals in group C received 5 mg/kg of FA and 30 mg/kg bwt of Ribcys concomitantly, while group D animals were treated with only 30mg/kg bwt of Ribcys. All compounds were administered for 14 days. This study showed that formaldehyde treatment altered key semen parameters (sperm count, motility, and morphology) and caused testicular damage mainly by increasing ROS generation and promoting oxidative stress in the testes. Results from this study demonstrate a significant depletion of the collagen content of the testes following formaldehyde treatment. Ribcys treatment maintained the levels of key antioxidant markers (Determination of Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and semen quality. Also, serum testosterone level in mice treated with Ribcys increased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to formaldehyde treated mice. In addition, the cytoarchitecture of the testes of Ribcys treated animals appeared better structured and similar to that of the control group with little or no degenerative changes when compared to the formaldehyde group. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine has potent antioxidant properties and could provide therapeutic defense.
Some factors have been found to influence lip print patterns in individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between lip print pattern and season of birth in a Nigerian population. A total 764 adults were purposively selected from a two closely related tribe in the north central geopolitical zone of Nigeria. There lip prints were obtained by applying lip gloss and print on a glass slide. Each lip was divided into 6 quadrants and studied under magnifying lens. Lip print patterns were grouped using Hassan Fahmy (1977) classification. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23). Lip print types were expressed as frequency and proportion for each lip quadrant. Correlations between male and female lip print pattern and their season of birth was done using Chi-square test. The confidence level was set as 95% while statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed a consistent prevalence of type III and IV in the entire upper and lower quadrant, while the least expressed were type I’ and II. Qualitative analysis of association between season of birth and lip print pattern showed no significant distributional difference between those born during wet and dry season in the entire upper and lower quadrant but established that types III and IV were more prevalence in the tribe of study. These finding has provided further fact to prove that cheiloscopy is a reliable tool for personal or tribe identification.
Vaginal smear cytology (VSC) is the most common method used in studying estrous cycle. There are multiple conflicting references regarding the VSC procedure, many of which lack comprehensive illustrations with undesired outcomes. These disparities have been linked to variations in environmental factors and inconsistencies in VSC procedure. These factors influence estrous cycling even before the administration of test substance, thereby causing research results that are not accurate. This study is therefore aimed at evaluating the procedure, factors that are being considered and result outcome. The assessment was carried out using questionnaires administered to basic scientists in three south western Nigeria Institutions; University of Lagos, University of Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University. The results from this study established that the length of the suction pipette inserted and the quantity of smear volume collected during VSC procedure were always measured and maintained in only 27% of respondents, sometimes in 64% and never in 9%. More so, researchers do not follow specific pattern of grouping where age-based and weight-based grouping pattern are higher with 47.2% and 48.0% respectively than using estrous cycle phase with 4.8% and no basis with 0.3%. The evaluation on result outcome showed that effective cycling at 100% is the lowest while cycling rate at 50% is the highest. We therefore advise that the evaluations of these results and those of the available references be put into test to establish a standard model for usage in this region of the world.
The uniqueness of fingerprints makes it a valued biometric trait and since the prints are regularly seen physical evidence in many crime scenes, forensic investigators employ them for sexual and ethnic differentiations when solving criminal cases. This study was an attempt to discriminate sex and ethnicity using thumbprint pattern and ridge density count between Igbo and Efik tribe of Nigeria. The sample size for this study includes 173 adults (Efik = 37 males, 44 females) and (Igbos = 61 males, 31 females), randomly selected between the ages of 18-40 years. The subjects were asked to wash and dry their hands to remove dirt and grease. The fingers (thumbs) of both hands were smeared with indelible ink and pressed in a white plane paper. Using meter rule, 25mm2 each was measured from radial border, ulnar border, and inferior quadrants respectively for fingerprint ridge density count. This data was analyzed using SPSS Software version 21 Chicago Incorporated. The results of this study showed that both the males and females of Igbo origin have predominantly loop fingerprint pattern, at the male to female ratio of 43% and 55% respectively. In the contrary, the male and female of Efik ethnic group recorded more whorl print pattern at the ratio of 54% and 50% respectively. More so, this results recorded sexual dimorphism (P<0.05) in the various ridge density count across the two ethnic groups, even the ethnic comparison of both males to males and females to females, recorded statistical significant difference (P<0.05) between the Igbos and Efiks. Hence, the Igbos, irrespective of sex showed more loop fingerprint pattern, contrary to the whorl fingerprint pattern more frequent amongst the Efiks.Thus, the present results will be of immense relevance in forensic practice by unveiling the peculiarities of finger ridge density associated with gender and ethnic origin.
Cheiloscopy and Nasal index are important bio-anthropological parameters unique to each ethnic group. The study aimed at identifying the lip print pattern and nasal index peculiar to Egba people and their possible interrelationship. The study was conducted in Abeokuta, South-West, Nigeria, among 410 adult Egba individuals (205 males and 205 females). Nasal height and width were measured using Digital Sliding Vernier Caliper. The lip prints of the subjects were collected by gently placing a microscopic glass slide on the lip after a little application of lip gloss. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software and the statistical significance was put into consideration using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) when (P ≤ 0.05). The result showed that the predominant lip print pattern of the Egba ethnic group was Type V. The predominant Nasal Index among both sexes was 60.00 while their peculiar nasal shape was Leptorrhine, which can subsequently serve as an important anthropometric tool used in reconstructive surgeries of nose. The study revealed no significant variation among the lip print patterns of all types of nasal morphology. The existence of sexual dimorphism in the lip print pattern of the Egba ethnic group is a peculiar feature that can be relevant in determination of gender in identification of persons during crime investigations and in mass disaster which are relevant in medico-legal cases.
Determination of sex and living stature are key components of the biological profile for the personal identification of individuals. There is limited literature describing such investigation among adult Nigerians. The present study was carried out to develop regression models to estimate living stature and reliably predict sex from percutaneous anthropometric dimensions of the hand in a contemporary adult Nigerian population in Lagos. To derive the regression models, a total of nine (9) anthropometric measurements were recorded for two hundred and twenty-two (222) adult Nigerians (Male 115, Females 107) ranging from 18-65 years of age among them were staff and students of College of Medicine of the University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba. The direct measurements taken were Hand length, Palm length, Hand breathes, Wrist width, and Digit lengths which included thumb, index, middle, ring, and little fingers. The result of this present study recorded a significant relationship between gender and stature determination using hand dimensions (p<0.001) as males recorded a mean of 176.49±7.4cm and female recorded a mean of 166.36±7.1cm. Together with stature, every other parameter showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between males and females. Results for correlation between hand parameters and stature were statistically significant (p<0.01) as different variables showed different degrees and strength of association ranging between 0.411 to 0.625 for left hand and 0.467 to 0.587 for right-hand measurements. The weakest correlations were observed in thumb length, little finger, and wrist width respectively on the right hand while thumb length and wrist width showed the weakest correlation on the left hand. Regression formulae for reconstructing stature were developed for each of these parameters through simple and multiple linear regressions for stature and logistic regression models were generated for sex estimation with a sectioning point at 0.5. Hand dimensions can be used in Sex and stature determination in medico-legal cases if the need arises. These derived equations, thus, provided a new tool for standard in forensic science in medico-legal practice.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element needed for normal development and physiological processes in the body. However, chronic exposures or consumption of Mn can cause neurotoxicity in humans to affect balance and motor coordination. Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in some fruits and its association with the management of motor neurodegenerative disorders is yet to be fully understood. Hence, this is present study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of Quercetin on manganese-induced cerebellar damage of adult mice. Forty (40) healthy BALB/c male mice weighing between 20-25grandomly selected into five groups were used for the study. Behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were carried to validate our hypothesis that Quercetin is neuroprotective. Manganese exposed mice exhibited increased latency of turn (LOT) when compared to the control group in parallel bar test. There was a significant decrease in the LOT in all groups that received Quercetin when compared with the manganese exposed group. Also, when using the grip strength test, manganese exposed mice exhibited decreased grip strength when compared to the control group and a significant increase in Quercetin grip strength when compared with manganese exposed group. Histological results also revealed that there were little or no disrupted neurons in the granular, molecular and purkinje layer of the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical results also showed that the normal control and Quercetin-treated mice showed no expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to the manganese-exposed mice with shrunken morphology. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly different in the experimental animals when compared to the control and Quercetin treated mice. This study, therefore, revealed that Quercetin may have an antioxidant effect on the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cerebellum thereby ameliorating the exhibited abnormal motor coordination caused by prolonged exposure to manganese.
Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other because of the role of the thyroid gland in the regulation of body metabolism. This work is therefore designed to study the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata (baobab) on the thyroid gland of alloxan-induced diabetes. Twenty-eight Wistar rats, weighing 120g to 195g were divided into seven groups (n=4). Sham control, Diabetes control, Diabetes + Low dose, Diabetes + High dose, Diabetes + metformin, Low dose, and High dose. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150mg/kg alloxan monohydrate and animals were treated with Adansonia digitata for 14 days. This study indicated that the leaf extract of Adansonia digitata increase serum triiodothyronine levels and reversed the histological damage to the thyroid gland. Therefore, Adansonia digitata could be used to manage metabolic dysfunctions in the diabetic thyroid gland
Impressions of shoe and footprints are commonly found in crime scenes. Examination of these prints provide useful insights in crime scene investigation. This study attempts to determine genderusing discriminant function models of shoe and footprints dimensions in a Cross River State population. A total sample size of 260 subjects, (145 females and 115 males) were taken. Shoe and footprints parameters were taken by first, making an outline on white A4 paper smeared with removable ink. Followed by highlighting the various landmarks of foot lengths (from hill to first, second, third, fourth and fifth toe) and breadths (at ball and hill). This results showed that shoe and footprints dimensions recorded statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) as seen in the outcome of independent sample t-test for sexual dimorphism for right shoe and footprints. Moreso, the analysis of paired sample test between the left and right shoe and footprints dimensions showed statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in most of the parameters except LT3, LT4 and LT5.Group centroids which is a function of group membership with cut off functions for the males and females are 0.650 and -5.16 respectively, canonical discriminant function showed skewness with a cluster of the male and female determine sex tilting to the opposite direction respectively. This present study has demonstrated the utility and precision of sex determination models developed from shoe and footprints dimensions. Therefore, this study has provided baseline data upon which further studies will thrive. Hence, this data will be useful to a forensic expert saddled with investigations involving human identity.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology