Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P<0.05) in pups of dietary fish oil – fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.
The leaf, stem and root bark of Morinda lucida (Ezeogwu), are bitter and astringent used in Nigeria in the treatment of fever, malaria, yellow fever, jaundice and dysentery. They are also used as dyestuff. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare histological effects of the leaves, stem and root bark extracts of Morinda lucida on some visceral organs and muscles of albino Wistar mice. Acute intraperitoneal toxicity tests were performed for each of the extracts to determine their LD50s using modified Lorke\'s method. Sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by intraperitoneal administration of different doses of the extracts on daily basis to the different groups of male mice for 21 days. The weights of the mice were taken before, during and after administration of the substance at weekly intervals. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and the liver, kidney, stomach, colon and muscle excised for histology processing and analysis. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity result (LD50) revealed Morinda lucida leaf, stem and root bark extracts to be lethal at 1,732.1; 1,058.3 and 970.8mg/kg body weight respectively. Microscopic examinations of the kidney, liver, stomach, colon and cardiac muscles showed that the effects of sub-chronic administration of Morinda lucida on the liver varied with the type of extracts and was dose dependent. The root extract had higher toxic effect. It had no adverse effect on the kidney, muscles, stomach and colon. This result may form the basis for further trials. It shows that Morinda lucida extracts are nontoxic at the dosage and oral route used by local traditional healers for its administration. However, caution is necessary in case of over dose.
Previous studies on the carrying angle have created some controversies and disparities in the reported cases. The lack of consistent reports may be traced to the limitations and definitions of the specific measurement techniques as well as individual variations in the specimens and subjects. Methods used in the past include, simple protractor goniometer, X-ray images, CT-images, CT-images, MRI-images., etc. In this study carrying angle is measured using a semi-circle manual goniometer on both left and right elbows in 2298 subjects (1,181 males, and 1,117 females). The age ranges from 5-19years and then young adults from 20years to 38years. The carrying angle is found to be higher in females than males in all age groups (females :L=3.19;R=12.31, males: L=8.78;R=7.78). The mean left carrying angle was also observed to be higher than the right carrying angle in all the age groups (females: L=13.19;R=12.31, males: L=8.87;7.78). However, statistically significant results were observed in a few age groups. The study confirms that the clinical carrying angle correlates best with age up to 9years, following which there was an irregularity in variation of the angles. The angle equally correlated well with height, weight and the upperlimb length. The revealed differences between the carrying angles in males and females can be considered as a secondary sex character. The recorded measurements also might be useful in the elbow and its reconstruction of fractures. The reproductivity of measuring the carrying angle by the simple technique used in this study makes the researchers propose that this may be used in actual clinical practice.
Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries. Non-invasive measurement of arterial diameter could become imperative in identifying individuals at risk. Therefore, we aimed to determine the parietal stress and normal values of left and right common carotid arteries in a young adult population and to evaluate their correlation with anthropometric variables (weight, height, BM[, BSA, and age) and also determine if sexual dimorphism exists in the values of common carotid artery diameter. Sixty (60) young adults with age range 18-35 were recruited for the study. B-Mode ultrasound was used to assess diameter of carotid arteries. Results showed that the diameter of the common carotid artery increased with age. The right common carotid artery had a larger diameter than the left (P<0.05). Males had larger common carotid diameter in both RCCA and LCCA than the females. The size of the common carotid artery however does not relate to height and blood pressure. Females showed a greater parietal stress than males. The study is the first to establish normal values of diameter of carotid arteries in an African population and will be a guide to further investigations into the possible relationship between the artery and the individuals at risk of carotid aneurysm.
A comparative study of the reproductive parameters (oocyte structure, fecundity and sex ratio) of two species of Heterobranchus ( H. longifilis and H. bidorsalis) from Idodo river basin were investigated. A bimodal size distribution was recorded for the two species which is indicative of the possibility of multiple spawning in a year. H. bidorsalis however demonstrated a significantly higher peak in oocyte diameter (P0<05). Spawnable oocytes in H. bidorsalis ranged from 1.25 to 2.15mm in diameter while H. longifilis had a range of 1.15 to 1.85mm diameter. A higher clutch size which was not statistically significant (P>0.05) was observed in H. bidorsalis when compared with H. longifilis. In both species, fecundity was linearly related to total length, standard length, body weight and ovary weight. Similarly the equations Y = - 3751.699 + 28.383X (r=0.971) for H. longifilis and Y= -382111+ 29.344X (r=0.971) for H. bidorsalis for fecundity and ovary weight showed more predictive relationship than the other parameters. The mean yearly sex ratio were 1: 1.42 and 1: 1.24 (male: female) for H. bidorsalis and H. longifilis respectively. In both species sex ratios were not statistically significant (P<0.05). High spawning capacities were exhibited by both species which is indicated by their high fecundity. An overview of these reproductive parameters observed in this study lends credence to the high reproductive capacity observed in the field studies of these species and thus confirms the view that Heterobranchus species along with other Clarrids constitute the largest productive biomass in the ichthyofauna of African waters.
The study investigated the correlation between stature and different radiographic scapular measurements. An also estimated stature using linear regression formula derived for the population of Igbos of south-east Nigeria. 90 scapular radiographic films comprising 45 males and 45 females with ages ranging between 25 to 65 were used for the study. Six different radiographic scapular variables were measured with spreading calliper. Height of the subjects was measured with standard height measuring instrument with the subject standing erect, in anatomical position. The result obtained was analyzed and used to derive a formula between different radiographic scapular measurements and the total height of an individual.
Understanding the mechanism of frontal sinus pneumatization depends on availability of accurate anatomical, physiological and pathological information in sufficient detail. It will also involve verification of certain prognostic factors, which may include simple anthropometric parameters. This study demonstrated the relationship between the variation in frontal sinus dimensions with age. In this study, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of 74 males and 46 females between the ages of 9 and 75 years were measured. The three parameters of height, breath and length of the frontal sinus were taken from the radiographs. Data were analyzed using excel package of a tabletop computer, employing chi-square test (x2) to determine the association between sinus dimensions and age. The results demonstrated a strong positive relationship between variation in sinus height and breadth (pneumatization in vertical portion of the frontal bone) with variation in age while variation in depth may not depend on age. Thus establishing the fact that some metric and morphologic characteristics of the frontal sinus vary with age. Therefore, it follows that advancement in age leads to increase in size of frontal sinus.
The knowledge of the dimensions of the external ear is important in the understanding of the physiognomy and aesthetics of the human body. Recent indications have also demonstrated experimentally that the pinnae perform an acoustical transformation essential to localization in human hearing. Standardized measurements of the longitudinal and transverse diameters of the normal pinna were measured in 148 male and female Nigerian Igbos of the Southeast zone, between the ages of 6 and 70 years. The subjects studied were selected to meet the inclusion criteria and were grouped according to age and sex. The data were analysed using the SPSS version 10.0. The mean length of the pinna for males (n = 101) for right and left side were 5.98 ± 0.3929 and 6.02 ± 0.2892 respectively.. The mean width for right and left were 3.182 ± 2.761 and 3.220 ± 0.1580 respectively. There were no statistical difference (p < 0.05) in the lengths and widths between the right and left sides of the males in the population under study. The means for lengths of right and left female pinna were 5.94 ± 0.2466 and 5.96 ± 0.2671 respectively. The means for the width of right and left female pinna gave 3.02 ± 0.1984 and 2.98 ± 0.1357 respectively. In all cases there were no statistical differences between the left and right sides as well as in the age categories. Overall data showed showed slight sex differences which was not statistically significant.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
Enugu State University of Science and Technology