A field experiment to investigate the effect of spacing and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on the growth and yield of watermelon was conducted at the teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The experiment was carried out in a 2 x 3 factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six (6) treatments replicated three (3) times using “crimson sweet” as a test crop. Parameters measured were vine length, number of fruits per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruit yield (ton/ha), and number of marketable fruits. 400kg/ha fertilizer in spacing 30cm x 30cm plots recorded the highest vine length of 193.8 cm which significantly deferred from the other treatment means. This was followed by 200kg/ha fertilizer in spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm which recorded vine length of 151.50 cm that significantly deferred from the rest of the treatment means. There were no significant differences between 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm pots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15 cm plots on vine length. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots recorded the highest mean number of 34.33 fruits per plant which deferred significantly from the rest of the treatment means. The following treatments produced the same effects on the number of fruits per plant – 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 1 5cm x 15cm plots. On fruit yield (ton/ha) 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm plots, and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots produced the highest yield of 13.44 ton/ha and 13.22 ton/ha respectively which were not significantly different except the controls – O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm and O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots which yielded 3.89 ton/ha and 5.48 ton/ha respectively. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm, 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm, 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm plots recorded mean number of 9.33, 9.00, 7.00 and 8.33 marketable fruits per plant respectively which were significantly the same except the controls. There was no treatment effect on the number of days to 50% flowering. There was no interaction (AB) effect on vine length (cm) between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing. Also, there was no interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the number of fruits per plant. There was a significant interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the fruit yield (ton/ha), so also on the number of marketable fruits. There was no interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the number of days to 50% flowering.
Five honeybee hives already colonized by honeybee were used in the study aimed at evaluating the effect of seasons of the year on weight gain by honeybee hive. The weight of these hives were reduced (by partial harvesting) to an average initial weight of 2.76kg the night preceding the experiment (30th of April, 2007) for seasons \'\'A\'\'. On the night of the last day of October the hives were weighed with the average weight gain for the hives standing at 6.27kg. This represents the initial weight of the hives for season “B”. Season “C” initial average weight was 13.13kg. The average weight of the beehives at the end of the season was 17.26kg. The average daily weight gain for each season was determined by dividing the weight gain for each season by the number of days (the observation lasted for). That is 184 days for season “A”, 92 days for season “B” and 89 days for “C”. The wet and dry bulbs thermometers were used in determining the micro-temperature and relative humidity. The micro-climatic readings were taken three times daily (6am, 12pm and 6pm) during the observation. The number of honeybees leaving and returning to the hives were observed and recorded. The study showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in terms of final weight gain and average daily weight gain in favour of “B”. The study also demonstrated that temperature and relative humidity affect honeybee foraging. Honeybee foraging affects weight gain.
Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate) as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran), Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica) as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum) as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB) replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani). Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.
Erosion is a cause for concern; this is because of its effects on the soil used for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Experiments were carried out to check the establishment, growth and biomass field of 3 tropical plants and their effects on soil loss during 2007 planting season. The treatments comprised 3 grasses viz. Azonopus compressus. Panicum maximum and Andropogon gayanus. The grasses were laid our in the field using a randomized complete block design replicated 4 times. Bare soil was used as the control. The parameters tested were plant height, leaf area index, root density, root establishment and the amount of soil loss using erosion pins. The result showed that Andropogon gayanus has an edge over Panicum maximum and Axonopus compressus with reference to plant height, root establishment, root density and leaf area index. Andropogon gayanus had a higher plant height from 3,6,9 and 12WAP with plant heights of 3.30cm, 3.63cm,3.93cm and 4.30cm representing 15.7%, 19.3% and 28.8% respectively. It was followed by P. maximum while A. compressus maintained the lowest plant height from 3,6,9 and 12 WAP with plant height of 2.83cm, 3.05cm, 3.20cm and 3.45cm respectively. In terms of root density, A. compressus did not have much root density which was 0.02t/ha, also at 12WAP, P. maximum did not have much root density which was 0.06t/ha though it was higher than A. compressus. The trend was the same for A. gayanus whose root density was 0.75t/ha. In terms of leaf area index (LAI), it was shown that at 3WAP and 6WAP, A. compressus had the lowest leaf area index of 58.25 and 65.75 respectively. Also at 9WAP and 12WAP A. compressus had 72.28 and 75.08t/ha respectively. At 3WAP and 6WAP P.maximum had a high leaf area index of 66.60 and 77.25 respectively. A. gayanus at 3WAP and 6WAP had 87.73 gayanus at 3WAP and 6WAP had 87.73 and 90.80 for 9WAP and 12WAP respectively. A. compressus protected the soil, reducing soil loss as a total of 9.43(t/ha) was noticed at 12WAP, while for P. maximum and A. gayanus, 139.34(t/ha) and 139.43(t/ha) were noticed from these grasses respectively hence A. compressis has an edge in reducing the amount of soil loss hence has high protective capacity over the soil.
An experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, to find out the effect of biochar on soil properties and maize yield in 2012 academic session. Four rates namely o (control), 1.5kg, 2kg and 3kg/ ha rates of biochar were used for the study that was arranged as a randomized complete block. The treatment was replicated 5 times. Result indicated that 3kg and 2kg/plot of biochar rate produced significantly higher growth and yield of maize (0.33& 0.26 t/ha) than 1.5kg and 0kg/plot of biochar rates. Result also indicated that biochar significantly increase soil exchangeable base (52%) and acidity (pH 4.62).
Some physical and mechanical properties of four varieties of Akparata (Alfzelia Africana) was studied at three moisture contact levels of 12.5% (wb); 15% (wb) and 18% (wb). Compressive strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and lateral loading positions. The rapture forces, compressive strength, modulus of deformability, toughness, stiffness and force at bioyield point were the mechanical properties determined at varying loading positions. Results indicate that the mean volume of the three varieties of Akparata increased linearly with increase in moisture content. Also the bulk densities of the three varieties decreased linearly with increase in moisture contents. The sphericity decreased marginally as moisture content were varied. The surface area of the Akparata varieties increased with moisture content. Generally, the compressive strength of the Akparata seeds is higher at longitudinal loading position them at the lateral positions.
Nigeria has enormous potentials for the production and processing of rice not only for domestic consumption but for export, that is, if it is well grown, harvested, cleaned, handled, dried, stored, milled, transported, and marketed. This work showcases the activities of the Abakaliki rice mill complex through development of questionnaire, administration of questionnaire and valid respondent assertion/contributions.The result shows that the study had the requisite requirements to carry out this research based on the level of education and experiences of the respondents (staff). 51.6% of the respondents had secondary education, 29% tertiary education, 16% primary education and 3.2% studied under informal education. Also 63% of the respondents had 10 years experience and 37% less than 10 years experience. Over seventeen (17) rice varieties were identified to be processed at the mill complex and that unit of operations like cleaning, grading, soaking, steaming, drying and to little extent, bagging are done manually. Virtually, all the unit of operations encountered losses except for little losses recorded during steaming and size grading.81% of the respondents declared that lack of technical know-how is one of the causes of losses as well as machine obsolescence. Therefore, the result shows that losses foraparticularricevarietyis specificandasuchshouldbehandledunique.
The determination of the physical and mechanical properties of NERICA paddy (FARO\'s 44(SIPI), 51(Isadane), 52(WITA 40) and 57(TOX4004-43-1-2-1)) at different moisture contents were carried out. The paddy rice was studied under un-parboiled and parboiled states. The results indicate that the size ranges were 3.88mm to 5.14mm for FARO 51; 3.91mm to 4.98mm for FARO 57; 3.62mm to 4.61mm for FARO 52 and 3.10mm to 4.82mm for FARO 44. This explains that no single sample of NERICA paddy can effectively represent the size of the other samples. In mechanical properties, results indicate that FARO 51 had highest values of rupture force, 42.00N at 13% moisture content in longitudinal loading position and FARO 52 had lowest values of rupture force, 23.10N at 13% moisture content for un-parboiled samples in lateral loading position. FARO 51 had highest values of rupture force, 39.50N at 13% moisture content in longitudinal loading position and FARO 52 recorded lowest rupture force, 15.80N at15% moisture content for parboiled samples in lateral loading position. It implies that force beyond these points at this moisture contents may cause damage to the NERICA paddy.
This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties) used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay) in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and
0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.
Keywords: Kinetics, Detoxification, Hydrogen Cyanide, Retting, Cassava
Reduction in post harvest losses must inevitably start with minimizing losses during harvesting. So far, grain stripping harvester is a technology which is being developed and is becoming effective for rice and wheat harvesting. Grain losses in stripping harvester occur at the gathering/stripping operation which are shattering, stubble and lodging losses. The harvest loss estimation of rice harvesting with a self propelled grain stripper developed in Nigeria was carried out. At best machine settings, determined were critical operating parameters to obtain total minimum harvest loss estimation which was 13.5% of the total yield while the manual harvesting loss was 20.3% under the same condition. The machine setting at this combination was rotor height of 270.0 mm, peripheral rotor speed of 670.0 rpm and forward speed was 3.0 km/h which gave shattering loss as 5.5%, stubble loss was 4.9% and lodging loss was 3.1% of the total yield. It was found that planting pure seed variety will reduce stripper header losses at harvest because it will result in uniform crop height at maturity which was one of the design factors that affected the harvester performance on the field.
Keywords:Estimation, field loss, stripper, rice, developed
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
Enugu State University of Science and Technology