The ion separation potential of graphene oxide-cellulose membrane produced from waste materials for use in filtration processes is demonstrated in this study. Graphene nanomaterial was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of electrodes from waste zinc-carbon batteries and characterized using TEM, UV-Vis, FTIR, and SEM/EDX techniques. The membrane was fabricated from graphene oxide and recycled cellulose paper pulp and was also characterized. The membrane has a surface area of 0.001735 m2, and under vacuum pressure of 0.3 Pa was found to have average permeability of 6.5285 x 10-5 m3/m2.s.Pa, flux of 1.9585 x 10-5 m3/m2.s, and volumetric flow rate of 3.3985 x 10-6 m3/s.Membrane desalination studies were performed using a suction pump set-up for time intervals of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150min on sodium chloride–simulated brackish, saline, and hyper-saline water. The ion separation efficiency measured by conductivities of water samples was found at the end of 150 min to be 91.0, 90.89, and 92.98% for brackish, saline, and hyper-saline water respectively. Optimum ion separation was obtained in the first 30 min of the desalination experiment (96.95, 96.63 and 96.56% for brackish, saline, and hyper-saline water respectively), after which there was a progressive increase in conductivities of all water samples due to swelling of the composite membrane.
Derivation of energy from coal is mostly through thermal decomposition. Although several literatures/studies exist on the suitability of Lafia-Obi bituminous coal for power generation and other thermal purposes, little or none has been reported on the thermal decomposition of Lafia-Obi bituminous coal during gasification. This work therefore seeks to look at the thermal decomposition behavior of Lafia-Obi bituminous coal when it is gasified. Thermal decomposition of Lafia-Obi coal during gasification was examined via; coal reaction kinetics, gas forming equations, gas analysis, temperature, and pressure monitoring, and heat balance analysis. Results show a combustion zone temperature of 577oC, reduction zone temperature of 489oC, gasification zone temperature of 479oC, and drying zone temperature of 468oC at a maximum pressure of 0.6x105N/m2. The average gas component yield of 15.7%CO, 18.1%CO2, 14.5%H2, and 1.9%CH4 by volume was recorded. The gas composition results are in agreement with the standard producer gas composition of 9-15% CO, 17-22% CO2, 12-20% H2, and 1-5% CH4. Cold Gas Efficiency of 73%, Hot Gas Efficiency of 86%, and Thermal Efficiency of 74% were determined. These results are indicative of a very efficient system that can be used for all forms of energy generation purposes such as direct combustion and for electricity generation. Keywords: Decomposition, Gasification, Coal, Thermal efficiency.
The study examines the microbiological properties of cheese from cow milk as influenced by heat treatment durations and biological coagulant types. The cow milk was pasteurized at 65°C and subjected to further heat treatment for 15, 20, and 25 minutes with the addition of coagulants (lime juice, tamarind pulp and moringa seed paste) to respective samples and allowed to cool for 30 minutes before pressing out the whey. The initial properties of raw cow milk were determined to serve as control and the nine produced cow-milk cheese samples were determined using a 3x3 factorial treatment design. The microbiological properties of the cheese were determined using standard methods. Results obtained were analyzed statistically to determine the influence of heat treatment duration and coagulant sample.The microbial analysis revealed that there was Coliform in samples from cow cheeses, C25 (moringa seed paste coagulated cheese at 15 minutes of heat treatment) has the highest Coliform of 1.6x103 cfu/g, B15 (tamarind pulp coagulated cheese at 15 minutes of heat treatment) and C20 have yeast and mould bacteria of <1.0 ×102cfu/g and mesophylic bacteria was highest at C15 of 1.1x104 cfu/g, which are also within the permissible limit of consumption.This study is initiated to determine the effect of heat treatment and local coagulants on the microbial properties of Nigerian soft cow-milk cheese. The microbiological analysis revealed that the cow-milk cheese samples were all fit for consumption at all the HTD.
Fish products require proper processing techniques to preserve their sensory qualities for a substantial period. This study presents the quality composition of a local fish species (Aba knife fish) predominant in Aba, South-eastern Nigeria. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of smoking process on the proximate and sensory qualities of Aba knife fish (Gymnaruchus niloticus). The studied fresh fish fillets were rinsed in clean water, brined and spread in trays before taken for smoke drying. A modified smoking kiln was used for the smoke-drying process. Analyses of proximate compositions (moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and ash content) were conducted on both the fresh and smoked fish samples. The study revealed that smoke drying decreases the moisture content to a mean safe level of 36.64 ± 0.01% dry basis (d.b), and increase the crude protein content (17.35 ± 0.02), ash content (3.61± 0.01), fat content (4.04 ± 0.01), carbohydrate content (38.36 ± 0.01) of the studied fish samples. There was no crude fibre content (0.00) in the fresh fish samples. Hence, the smoking process had no noticeable effect on the fibre content. The smoked fish samples were rated high in terms of aroma, taste, texture, colour, and general acceptability by the panel of quality assessors. Significance of the results obtained as well as recommendations for future studies were offered.
The demand for high-performance materials has increased particularly across all industries in recent times due to the various areas of applications. Industries now require materials with a high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent anti-corrosion properties, good mechanical properties and good thermal conductivity. Given this, this study investigated the effect of palm kernel shell ash particle addition on the mechanical and thermal properties of Al-Mg-Si material. The mechanical properties of aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si)/palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) particles composites developed by powder metallurgy method were investigated. Also, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) analysis were carried out to determine their thermal properties. The produced PKSA was characterized with XRF to determine its elemental composition and the result showed that the presence of phases such as SiO2, K2O and Fe2O3 in high proportions which are known to be hard with extreme thermal resistance indicates a better chance at reinforcement. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact strength and flexural deflection) and the thermal properties were used as criteria to access the PKSA reinforced composite. Results revealed that there is an improved mechanical property of the developed composites (with a 43.76% increase in the hardness value and 252.03% increase in the impact strength) which is not farfetched from the reinforcement effect on the reduction in the percentage of elongation.
The challenges experienced domestically require immediate service responsiveness of various sub-professionals. These challenges and investigative landscapes draws awareness to epileptic services of this home demand services and tends to an increase of wears and tears of domestic appliances and equipment, hence decreasing their downtime and production. This outcome however is as a result of the hitches inaccessibility of these sub-professionals (artisans) to assist in their maintainability. This paper titled “Improving Home Request Services with Web-Based Android Application” is aimed at designing and implementing an improved home demand services using automated web-based android applications. This study was realized using object-oriented methodology in line with the necessary universal modeling diagrams for the system design and was implemented using Java programming language in android studio as the software development kit. The improved developed system was hosted locally and tested using furry investigative toolbox (instrument tool for testing mobile applications), and the result was recorded and compared with other services rendering systems. The result showed that the developed home request services with web-based android application alleviated the problem of moving about searching for sub-professional (artisans) to render domestic services.
Environmental issues involving the oil and gas industry have been growing in awareness; therefore high priority is given to waste handling and disposal. Although the thermal desorption unit (TDU) is meant to reduce the environmental damage of the waste from oil industries, it may also contribute to the damage. A way of putting this to check is by taking the life cycle assessment of the operation. This study presents the environmental impact assessment using a gate-to-gate approach of a thermal desorption unit in Nigeria, analyzed following ISO 14040 standards. GaBi software obtained from PE international was used to carry out the analysis with the management of 46,541,880kg of the waste mix for a period of 365 days considering the worst-case scenario as the functional unit. The results showed that fossil depletion is about 2,516,253 kg of oil equivalent, water depletion is 0.883 m3, and particles to air is close to 35% of the particles generated. Weak point analysis to show the unit with the greatest impact on the environment was also estimated by GaBi. This study proves that the operation of a TDU can be certified as eco-friendly.
There are some other two-phase IPR methods available in the literature that can be used to predict the performance of oil wells. Hence, in this study, the objective is to carry out a comparison using a wellbore radius as a determinant. The aim is to know how wellbore affects productivity and also to know which model is more reliable in predicting the future performance of a horizontal well. In this work, the IPR curve was developed and used to analyse wells deliverability by estimating the production rate for a given bottom-hole flowing pressure and wellbore radius were used as a determinant. The results show that Wiggin’s method has a higher performance. The results have exposed the inflow performance relationship (IPR) of a horizontal oil well at the early flow time. It was observed also that wellbore radius affects productivity and from this, we can convincingly say that Wiggin’s method is better in predicting the future performance of a horizontal well
Everyone wants to feel safe within their home and work environment. Over the years, home and office securities were achieved by employing watchdogs and security personnel to safeguard lives and properties. These methods worked for the time being but failed in some aspects as both the watchdogs and security personnel could be overpowered, drugged, and even be hurt by these attackers. This pilot research work is aimed at developing a door surveillance system that will improve the security of homes and offices by capturing the image of the person at the door as well as triggering an alarm and then displaying the captured image in the television kept inside. The system was implemented using a Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR) sensor and an Arduino microcontroller with software assistance of Arduino IDE and processing development environment required for its control. The wiring of the system in veroboard was done using its circuit diagram drawn and simulated in Proteus 6.0 environment. After soldering and packaging, the system was tested and the operation efficiency was satisfactory. In conclusion, this system provided some solutions to security shortfall in our homes and offices as the image of the individual is captured and stored for future reference, without the person’s knowledge.
This paper examines the characteristics of products from anaerobic digestion of cassava waste with and without starter culture. The anaerobic digestion experiment was conducted using a 20 litre anaerobic digester at mesophilic temperature for 41-day hydraulic retention time. In addition to experimental yields, maximum theoretical biogas yield and biomethane potential were estimated using Buswell and Neave model, while the Hashimoto model was used to determine the kinetic parameters. Digestate specie distribution was assessed using elemental analysis. The result of the study showed biogas yields of 0.1-0.25m3/kgVSadded for digester1 (D1), and 0.1-2.5m3/kgVSadded for digester2 (D2), with an average yield of ~0.2 and 1.0m3/kgVSadded for respective digesters. About 0.8m3/kgVSadded was the estimated maximum theoretical biogas yield, and 1.32m3/kgVSadded for CH4. The percentage of CH4 in produced biogas was approximately 60%. The correlation coefficient () was 0.91 (D1) and 0.96 (D2), while 0.06 (D1) and 0.32 (D2) was obtained for the decay constant (k) The elemental composition of digestates substantially reduce when compared with that of initial feedstock. About 40–68%C, 36.57%H2, 21.4–28.6%S, and up to 94%N was distributed to biogas phase, the remnant in the digestate.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology